Message icon
Email Address
mskccindia@icliniq.com
Phone icon
Phone Number
+91 82 700 70000
Nursing icon

You will face many hard decisions if a loved one or you have been diagnosed with ovarian, cervical, or endometrial (uterine) cancer. Including several questions like where should you go for treatment? What are the available treatment options? How to maintain your quality of life? We have tried to describe these concerns, the types, and possible treatment, which will help you decide.

Ovarian Cancer

What Is Ovarian Cancer?

Title line

The type of cancer where the cells in the ovaries, two almond-sized female reproductive organs that produce eggs and female hormones (estrogen and progesterone), multiply and grow out of control is called ovarian cancer. When the genes in the cells of the ovaries no longer work properly, the cells divide uncontrollably and form a tumor.
Ovarian cancer is the second most common cancer seen in women, and one in seventy women is at risk of developing it. One in ten women with ovarian cancer also has a positive family history or a genetic mutation that increases their risk. Genetic tests at MSKCC can help identify such women at risk. Try out MSKCC's Ovarian Cancer - Cancer-Specific Survival Following Surgery (Prediction Tool) nomogram!

What Are the Types of Ovarian Cancer?

Title line

All ovarian cancer patients are different, and all of them need a customized treatment plan according to the type of ovarian cancer. Ovarian cancer has more than 30 different types, and they are named based on the ovarian cell they develop from. The common types include:

  • Ovarian Epithelial Cancer - These tumors originate in the epithelial cells that line the outer surface of the ovaries. This type accounts for 85 to 90 % of all ovarian cancers.
  • Germ Cell Tumors - Tumors can also form from the egg-producing cells of the ovaries, and most of these growths are benign.
  • Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors - This type accounts for about 1 % of ovarian cancers. These tumors develop from the stroma tissue cells (the cells that produce female hormones - estrogen and progesterone).

What Are the Treatment Options for Ovarian Cancer?

Title line

The main treatment option is surgery for both early and advanced ovarian cancer. The type of surgery will be decided based on the cancer type and stage, the patient’s general health, and if the patient plans on having children in the future. MSKCC experts suggest chemotherapy after surgery to prevent a recurrence.

Cervical Cancer

What Is Cervical Cancer?

Title line

The type of cancer that originates in the cervix, which is the lower part of the uterus that connects to the vagina. The majority of this cancer (almost 90 %) results from sexually transmitted infections with various strains of human papillomavirus strains (HPV). Once infected, the virus survives for years in some women and changes the tissue lining the cervix. This is called dysplasia or precancer, which can lead to cancer if not treated. It is a slow-growing tumor, and before the actual cancerous transformation occurs, dysplastic cells can be removed, and cancer can be prevented.

What Are the Types of Cervical Cancer?

Title line
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) - The squamous cells (thin and flat cells) present in the lowermost part of the cervix divide uncontrollably and form this type of cervical cancer. Almost 70 % of all cervical cancer is SCC.
  • Adenocarcinoma - It is the second most common type and accounts for 20 % of cancer in the cervix. The glandular cells (column-shaped) that line the cervix and produce mucus undergo cancerous transformation.
  • Adenosquamous Carcinoma - It is a mix of both squamous and glandular cancer cells. It is rare and is seen in only 5 to 6 % of cervical cancer cases.

What Are the Treatment Options for Ovarian Cancer?

Title line

The main treatment option is surgery for both early and advanced ovarian cancer. The type of surgery will be decided based on the cancer type and stage, the patient’s general health, and if the patient plans on having children in the future. MSKCC experts suggest chemotherapy after surgery to prevent a recurrence.

Uterine (Endometrial) Cancer

What Is Uterine Cancer?

Title line

Uterine or endometrial cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the endometrium, the inner lining of the uterus (the inverted-pear-shaped hollow female reproductive organ). Women who have been diagnosed with endometrial hyperplasia, those who are obese, had their menarche before 12 years and menopause after 55 years, etc., are at risk of this cancer. Try out MSKCC's Endometrial Cancer - Overall Survival Probability Following Surgery (Prediction Tool) nomogram!

What Are the Types of Uterine Cancer?

Title line
  • Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma - Cancer develops in the glandular cells that line the uterus. Almost 75 % of all uterine cancers are this type.
  • Serous Adenocarcinoma - This type most commonly spreads to lymph nodes and other areas of the body. Around 10 % of women diagnosed with uterine cancer have this type.
  • Adenosquamous Carcinoma - This is a rare type of uterine cancer that affects the glandular cells and the flat squamous cells that line the uterus.
  • Carcinosarcoma - This is also a rare type that was thought to be a type of uterine sarcoma. They have a higher risk of spreading to other body parts and lymph nodes.

MSKCC physicians treat almost 1,300 women every year with some form of gynecologic cancer. From which, around 300 have uterine cancer. They form customized treatment plans for every woman suffering from cancer.

What Are the Treatment Options for Uterine Cancer?

Title line

MSKCC experts determine the type of uterine cancer and its stage through biopsy and other tests. Depending on the results, the doctor might suggest surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, or a combination of therapies. Patients can also benefit from the thousands of clinical trials ongoing at MSKCC that explore new therapies.

MSKCC’s Surgeons and Experts

  • Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum, MD, FACOG, FACS
    Nadeem R. Abu-Rustum, MD, FACOG, FACS Clinical Expertise: Gynecologic Oncology; Cancers and Tumors of the Cervix, Uterus, Ovary, Vulva, and Vagina; Laparoscopic Surgery; Fertility-Sparing Surgery (Radical Trachelectomy); Prophylactic Laparoscopic Oophorectomy for High-Risk Patients
  • Dmitriy Zamarin, MD, PhD
    Dmitriy Zamarin, MD, PhD Clinical Expertise: Gynecologic Cancers; Cancer Immunotherapy
  • Vicky Makker, MD
    Vicky Makker, MD Clinical Expertise: Medical Treatment of Ovarian, Endometrial, and Cervical Cancers
  • Dennis S. Chi, MD, FACOG, FACS
    Dennis S. Chi, MD, FACOG, FACS Clinical Expertise: Gynecologic Oncology; Cervical Cancer; Uterine Cancer; Ovarian Cancer
  • Kaled M. Alektiar, MD, FASTRO
    Kaled M. Alektiar, MD, FASTRO Clinical Expertise: Ovarian Cancer; Cervical Cancer; Uterine (Endometrial) Cancer; Soft Tissue Sarcomas; Endocrine Tumors (Adult); Melanoma; Bone Tumors; Brachytherapy